Home » Articles posted by David Federico

Author Archives: David Federico

March 2024

Commercial Roofing Options

Orlando Roofing Companies protect businesses and their contents from the elements. It’s one of the most important investments a business can make.

While all roofs serve the same purpose, there are many differences between residential and commercial roofing. The installation process and the materials used differ. The main difference is the slope of the roof and the material chosen.


When building owners and architects look for commercial roofing options, single-ply membranes have gained much popularity in recent years. They are ideal for flat or low-slope roofs and come in a wide range of styles, materials, and technology.

When a builder or owner opts for this type of roof, they can choose from three primary types of membranes: EPDM, PVC, and TPO. The difference between these membranes lies in their chemical composition, manufacturing process, and installation methods.

The membranes themselves can be either self-adhered or mechanically attached. Self-adhered is preferred by most installers because it enables the membrane to be installed quickly and with little mess or odor. It also offers the most durability of all installation methods because the adhesives bond securely to the surface of the roof deck. Mechanically-attached membranes, on the other hand, are fastened to the roof with lines of fasteners that are hidden within the seams where the sheets overlap. These fasteners are typically metal or plastic and are bonded to the membranes using hot air or solvents.

Regardless of the style, all single-ply membranes offer a variety of benefits that make them popular for commercial roofing projects. They are able to reflect and repel ultraviolet radiation that can otherwise damage the interior of a building, allowing you to maintain a cool roof that will save on energy costs. Single-ply membranes are also incredibly durable, standing up to even the harshest of weather conditions and environmental factors.

Another significant benefit is the ease with which they can be installed over existing roofs. Unlike built-up systems with multiple layers of bitumen and reinforcement felts, single-ply membranes can be rolled out and adhered to the existing surface, making them easy to install on a tight deadline.

In addition, many single-ply membranes can be installed over a broad spectrum of insulation materials. This is especially true for TPO and PVC, both of which can be applied over various forms of rigid or spray-applied insulation. This allows you to save on the cost of having to add a new insulation layer and also makes it easier to achieve your desired roof design, such as a green or energy-efficient roof.

All single-ply membranes, including PVC and TPO, are available in a wide variety of colors to match the aesthetic of any building. They are also lightweight, allowing them to be easily installed by professional contractors with minimal impact on the overall construction schedule.

All responsible membrane manufacturers provide installer training, ensuring that their products are installed properly and to industry standards. These companies often have field engineers who visit job sites during and after the membranes are installed to ensure that all work is done correctly. These specialists can also provide technical support for any installation issues that may arise during the project.

The two most popular single ply membranes are Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and Thermoplastic Olefin Membrane (TPO). Both offer the durability, energy efficiency, and other advantages that commercial buildings need. Both can be used as part of a roof restoration system or installed as an entirely new roofing system. Both can withstand the elements, chemicals, and other potential contaminants. They also provide an easy-to-maintain surface for the long term.

PVC and TPO are similar in their composition, but they have some distinct differences that should be considered when choosing the right roofing material for your building. Both are thermoplastics, which means they soften when heated and harden when cooled. This makes the seams in the roof membranes easily welded, creating a watertight, seamless top layer.

Both PVC and TPO are highly reflective of the sun’s rays, helping to keep your building cooler and potentially reducing your energy costs for air conditioning. They also offer a high level of UV resistance and have been tested to meet the standards set by Underwriters Laboratories and Factory Mutual.

TPO is a relatively new membrane that has gained in popularity over the past decade or so, thanks to its cost-effectiveness and performance. Its use has increased rapidly, with it now accounting for 40% of all new roof installations and 30% of reroofing projects. TPO is made from a blend of polypropylene and ethylene-propylene plastics, as well as other ingredients like plasticizers, UV absorbers, color pigments, biocides, flame retardants, and more.

While TPO may be less expensive than PVC, its quality can vary significantly from manufacturer to manufacturer. Some TPO membranes are susceptible to early deterioration and can experience weld problems, which can lead to premature failure. Others are prone to bubbling or rippling, and may have low breaking strength.

PVC, on the other hand, offers superior durability and longevity. Its initial cost is higher than TPO, but it has been a staple of the roofing industry for longer and has a proven track record of success. PVC is non-reactive to most chemicals and is able to withstand heat, oil, and exhaust from grease traps.

Ultimately, it is your roofing expert who can help you determine which type of single-ply membrane will best suit the needs of your commercial building. A professional will consider the building’s purpose and physical location, as well as your budget, before making a recommendation. Regardless of which material you choose, ensure your roofing contractor provides top-tier warranties to protect your investment and give you peace of mind. A qualified roofer will be backed by a reputable manufacturer and can help you understand the coverages of these warranties. This will help you avoid any issues that could arise during the course of your project. This will include both workmanship and material warranty periods.

Shingles aren’t for every commercial building, but when they are a good fit, they provide many advantages. They’re easy to install and repair, and they add a design element that makes a business more appealing. Plus, they can help dampen the noise from rain and hail. In addition, shingles are more resistant to certain elements like UV rays and fire.

The type of shingle you choose will depend on your budget and aesthetic preferences. Builder-grade asphalt shingles offer budget-friendly options starting at $3 per square foot. Higher-end architectural shingles that feature enhanced wind protection, algae resistance and a warranty may cost more, but they typically last longer.

A shingle roof needs regular maintenance and periodic inspections to ensure that all components are working as they should. However, the small shingle size means that this maintenance is more involved than with other types of roofing. The shingles must be kept free of debris and debris accumulation, such as leaves and twigs, and also checked for water leaks, damage to the underlayment, and moss growth.

The small granules that make up a shingle’s surface are also an excellent deterrent to hail, sand and other forms of debris that can cause roof damage. Additionally, a shingle’s texture helps camouflage dirt and grime, making cleaning up much easier than it is on smooth metal or membrane roofs.

In general, a shingle roof requires less maintenance than other types of commercial roofing, but it is important to make sure that it’s done by a professional. A professional will check the roof for damage, leaks, and moss and lichen buildup. The roofing expert will also make sure the proper underlayment and ice and water shield are in place.

If you’re considering a new shingle roof for your commercial property, be sure to ask about the variety of colors and textures available. You can choose from a wide range of architectural styles and even have your roof designed to mimic the look of a natural slate tile roof.

There are a variety of other roofing materials out there, including rubber, PVC, and TPO. These are all durable and resistant to extreme weather conditions, but they may not be the right choice for your business. Talk to a commercial roofing contractor in to learn more about your roofing options and what the best fit is for your property. With the right installation and routine maintenance, your shingle roof will continue to protect your business for years to come.

Types of Roofing Materials

There are a wide variety of roofing materials to choose from. You can find one that suits your climate and accentuates the style of your home.

Regardless of the type you select, accurate roof measurements are essential. Anderson Roofing and Exteriors will help you determine how many shingle bundles you need. You can also use this information to estimate costs and budget for your roofing project.


Asphalt shingles are the most common type of shingle on homes. They are available in various colors and styles, allowing homeowners to create a roof that complements their home’s design and architecture. These shingles are also durable and can withstand high winds and heavy snowfall. They also provide excellent insulation, which helps to lower energy bills.

There are two basic types of asphalt shingles: fiberglass and organic. Fiberglass shingles have a base mat made of paper, waste material, cellulose, or wood fibers saturated with asphalt and covered with granules. Organic shingle base mats are usually made of recycled materials and contain up to 40% more asphalt than fiberglass shingles. This makes them more pliable and resistant to fire damage, and they offer a better class B FM fire rating than fiberglass shingles.

Both kinds of shingles have a lifespan specified by their manufacturer. 3-tab shingles live the shortest, while architectural and luxury shingles can last up to 30 years or more under the right conditions.

While there are some advantages to using asphalt shingles, these shingles do require some maintenance and upkeep. They need to be checked regularly for moss and algae growth and replaced as required after severe weather. Additionally, asphalt shingles are less environmentally friendly than other roofing materials since they are manufactured from petroleum and fiberglass.

The good news is that more manufacturers are producing energy-efficient versions of these shingles, so getting the benefits of an asphalt roof with less environmental impact is possible. Many of these shingles are made with reflective materials that help to reduce the amount of heat the shingles absorb from the sun.

Regardless of which type of shingle you choose, it is important to have the right number and quality to protect your home. The best way to ensure you have enough shingles is to ask your roofing contractor for advice on how much shingle area you need. They can also advise you on the best shingle types for your area and climate.

Wood shingles provide a rustic, cottage-esque aesthetic to a home. Though they’re not as well suited for rainy climates as other roofing materials, well-cared-for wooden roofs can last for decades. Some homeowners enjoy how they fade over time, giving their home a weathered look that adds charm.

Depending on the region, different types of wood are used for roofing and siding. The most popular type of wood shingle is cedar, with wallaba and teak being common choices. Cedar and wallaba shingles offer a timeless appeal, while teak adds a more exotic flavor to homes with a contemporary style.

A wood shingle can be sawn or split, offering a more rugged, natural appearance. Shake shingles can be hand split or sawn, and the finished product can be left rough on one side (handshake) or sawn on both sides for a more tailored look (taper sawn). A high-quality shingle should be cut perpendicular to the tree’s growth rings.

Its color and grain pattern can further distinguish the quality of a wooden shingle. Colored shingles are often stained or treated to enhance their durability. However, the appearance of a shingle will be more affected by the climate, installation quality, and maintenance schedule.

While they’re a beautiful choice for many regions, wood shingles require more upkeep than roofing materials. They must be treated annually to maintain their water and fire resistance and should be cleaned at least once a year. They’re also heavier than other shingles, making them unsuitable for some structures.

Slate is an alternative to wood shingles, offering the same elegant, old-fashioned look that many homeowners desire. Slate is extremely durable and weather-resistant, and it’s not uncommon for a well-maintained slate roof to last for a century or more. While it’s more expensive than a wooden shingle, it can save money in the long run by lowering energy costs. Slate is not as easy to install as other shingles and must be carefully cut by a skilled tradesperson. It is also a heavy material to ship and transport.

Clay roof tiles are an old-fashioned roofing material that can add a rustic charm to any home. They are usually associated with Spanish architecture but can be used on other styles of homes. They are highly durable and energy-efficient. They help keep heat in the house during warm and out during cold weather, lowering your heating and cooling bills. They also protect against rain, frost, wind, and the sun’s UV rays. Unlike asphalt shingles, they do not lose color and can last decades.

A clay tile roof is more expensive than an asphalt shingle roof, but it is worth the investment in terms of increased home value. This type of roofing is a good choice for homeowners who want to build a new home or are redoing their current roof. Finding a roofing contractor with experience installing clay tile is important. It is best to hire a pro who has worked on several different types of houses or historical buildings.

Concrete roof tiles are another good alternative to asphalt shingles. They are available in various colors and patterns to match any architectural style. They are also easy to maintain and add a unique look to any home. They are a great choice for people in hot or humid climates, as they can resist mold and mildew better than asphalt shingles.

While it is possible to install a concrete roof on a home with an existing structure, it is better to rebuild the entire roof with this type of roofing to achieve its maximum potential. This is because the existing roof may not be able to support the weight of the tiles. Replacing wood shingles with cement is also recommended, as they are more fire-resistant than wooden ones.

While clay tiles are more durable than other roofing materials, they can still deteriorate with age. This can lead to structural damage, so it is crucial to have your roof regularly inspected and repaired.

Slate is one of the most beautiful roofing materials available, and it has a natural, timeless appeal that complements classic homes from the 19th century and modernist houses built in recent years. Its beauty is only surpassed by its durability and longevity, however. It can last a century or more when it is properly maintained, and it can also add tremendous value to a home.

While it can be expensive, slate is an excellent investment, providing significant savings over the roof’s life. However, it is important to select the right roofer for the job. Slate is heavier than asphalt shingles, requiring a special skill set not all roofers possess. If a roofer is not experienced with working with slate, mistakes can be made that will be costly to correct.

In addition, slate is sensitive to temperature changes and must be installed correctly to prevent damage. Roofers unfamiliar with these issues can cause problems requiring a roof replacement or repair much sooner than necessary.

Most slates are cut into standardized shingle sizes, but they can also be cut into different shapes to form geometric patterns and create other designs. These patterns can add texture to a house and even serve as a way to hide an unsightly chimney or vent.

While slate is a good choice for homeowners interested in a more traditional look, it is also possible to use synthetic slate on modernist buildings and homes. Synthetic slate is manufactured from petroleum-based materials and cast from authentic slate, and it can be recycled as a roofing shingle at the end of its useful life. Most synthetic slates are produced with non-toxic, environmentally friendly materials and contain advanced ultraviolet inhibitors to reduce wear.

How to Keep Your Roof Repair Cost Down

roof repair cost

It’s no secret that Roof Repair NJ can be expensive. However, there are some things you can do to keep the cost down. For example, you can repair minor leaks with Gorilla Tape (which is specifically formulated to stick to wet surfaces). You should also handle problems quickly, as even small leaks can cause major water damage over time.

Cost of Materials

Your roof protects the inside of your home, but it’s vulnerable to damage and requires regular maintenance. Some repairs are minor, while others can be expensive. The cost of materials plays a large role in the overall cost of the repair. The type of roofing material affects costs as well. Flat and single-story gable roofs are the least expensive to repair, while curved or multiple-level roofs can be more costly. The pitch, or steepness, of the roof also increases repair costs. Steep roofs require extra safety precautions and take longer to work on, which raises labor costs.

Surface problems like a few broken or missing shingles and leaky skylights are relatively inexpensive to fix. Minor repairs include applying roofing cement or caulking and replacing the flashing, which are the thin metal pieces that line roof valleys and prevent leaks around chimneys, vents, and skylights. If the underlying sheathing or rafters are damaged, a roof truss repair may be necessary. These are the interior wooden supports that form the “skeleton” of your roof, and they can be vulnerable to moisture, insect infestations, rot, or structural damage.

Leaks are one of the most common reasons homeowners contact a roof contractor. The size of the leak and how long it has been occurring will determine the repair cost. If there is a lot of water penetration, a new roof overlay or partial replacement may be required. Other costly leaks stem from faulty installations, loose seams and fasteners, ice dams, weathered coatings, or corrosion of the flashing.

Repairing a metal roof starts at $250 for patching holes and resealing, and can reach up to $800 for a complete roof overlay or partial replacement, according to LawnStarter. This price includes painting and removing any existing rust, as well as cleaning and inspecting the underlayment for corrosive substances.

The condition of your gutters can also affect the total cost of a repair, with repairs ranging from $150 to $500 per section. A professional inspection is usually recommended, and can run $100-$600. This is an essential step to ensure the health of your roof and avoid costly issues in the future.

Cost of Labor

The cost of labor used to repair a roof depends on the extent of the damage and the complexity of the repairs required. It also depends on the time of year, since roofing contractors are in higher demand in spring and summer. The type of roof material is another factor, since some materials are more difficult and expensive to work with than others. Other factors include the type of repair needed and the roof’s pitch and design.

Minor roof repairs usually involve patching holes, repairing leaky skylights and fixing cracked vents. These types of repairs can be done by homeowners who have some experience with construction or who are comfortable using power tools and caulking. They typically cost less than repairing a section of the roof.

Leaking roofs are the most costly to fix, especially if there is extensive damage or mold growth. Depending on the type of roof and extent of the leak, it may require removing shingles, installing new flashing or replacing entire sections of the roof. It may also require re-sealing the valleys on the roof or replacing the gutters.

Another common problem is sagging roofs, which often result from a buildup of snow or water that weighs down the shingles and boards beneath them. If the sagging is isolated, it may not require a complete replacement and can be fixed by simply raising the shingle in question.

If the sagging is widespread, however, it could require structural reinforcements that are more expensive and time-consuming to install than simply raising the shingles. Also, if the sagging is caused by a significant number of blown-off shingles, it will probably be more cost-effective to replace the entire roof.

A roof’s structure is largely made of wood, and the rafters and sheathing can be damaged by pests or from old age. Damaged rafters and sheathing can cause the roof to sag or even collapse.

Other structural issues that can be expensive to fix include the ridge capping, which is the triangular area at the top of a roof and often needs to be replaced, as well as the eaves, which are where the walls of a home meet the roof.

Cost of Permits

When it comes to building permits, costs vary from city to city. However, most cities have a standard plan check fee and additional fees and taxes for each project. This allows the city to assess the cost of materials, labor and other factors that go into the building or renovation process. This means that it’s important for homeowners and contractors to check with the city before starting any work on a project and to know the specific guidelines and costs of working with that particular jurisdiction.

A permit is typically required to repair or reroof a roof. The roofing contractor is responsible for securing the permit before beginning work and notifying the city when the work has been completed. The city then inspects the work to ensure that it meets all of the proper codes and regulations. The city inspector can also verify the quality of the workmanship, which is an important factor when it comes to repairing or reroofing a home.

If you don’t get a permit for your roof repair, there could be consequences. For example, the building inspector might order you to stop working until you get the permit or they may require you to remove any work that has been done without a permit. This is not good for the health and safety of you and your family, so be sure to always ask a roofing company if they will be getting a permit before hiring them for any work.

The cost of a permit will depend on the size of your roof and the type of repair being performed. In general, the cost of a permit will be higher for larger projects and repairs that require structural changes. If your roof is leaking and you need to repair a small area of the roof, it’s generally not viewed as structural damage by the building department and doesn’t require a permit.

In addition, many insurance companies will not cover any damage that was caused by a home owner who did work on their home without a permit. It’s therefore vital to obtain a permit for any repair or reroofing job to avoid issues with insurance coverage in the future.

Cost of Emergency Repairs

The roof is your home’s first defense against the elements. It keeps out rain, wind, cold, and pests. It’s important to maintain a properly functioning roof, but sometimes repairs are necessary. Whether it’s a tree limb that crashes into the roof or a severe leak, these types of emergency repairs need to be fixed quickly to minimize damage and protect your home.

Roof repair costs vary depending on the type and severity of the repair. A simple leak repair might cost $150, while more serious issues could run up to $1,500 or more. The roof material also affects the cost. Asphalt shingles are the cheapest roofing materials, while metal and slate are more expensive. A full roof replacement can cost $8,000 or more.

Some repairs require a permit, which will add to the overall cost of the project. Generally, permits cost $75-$250, and a professional inspection will be required for most major work. The inspection will help determine the exact nature of the work that needs to be done.

Another factor that will increase the cost of a roof repair is the time it takes to complete the job. A good roofer will try to complete the work as quickly as possible without sacrificing quality. However, weather and other unforeseen circumstances can make this difficult.

It’s a good idea to set aside some money for emergency roof repair projects. Even if you have routine maintenance performed by a professional, it’s still a good idea to have some money set aside in case of an emergency. If you do decide to undertake emergency roof repair yourself, remember that it is not recommended to climb onto a damaged roof unless you have the proper equipment and training. Not only is this dangerous, but it can also result in additional damage to your home and possibly injury or death. It’s always best to have a professional inspect the damage and perform the emergency work. This will ensure that the job is completed correctly and safely. A reputable roofer will also be able to assist you with filing an insurance claim.

The Benefits of Chimney Repair

Chimney repair is a crucial part of keeping your home safe. It can prevent leaks, a dangerous buildup of carbon monoxide gas, and even house fires.Chimney Repair

There are several types of chimney repairs that require expert attention, including cracks, repointing, and spalling. These problems can lead to expensive and extensive repairs if left untreated.

A chimney flue liner is one of the most important parts of a chimney. It helps to protect the interior of your chimney from damage and ensures that smoke, ash, and other byproducts can safely escape to the outside.

Chimney liners are also essential for limiting the amount of heat that transfers to combustible materials around your home. A National Bureau of Standards (NBS) study found that woodwork adjacent to an unlined chimney would catch fire within 3.5 hours.

If your chimney liner is damaged or deteriorating, you need to have it repaired as soon as possible so that you can continue using your fireplace or stove. If the damage is too severe, you may have to replace your entire chimney.

There are a few different ways that chimney liners can be repaired. Some options include repairing cracks, relining, and replacing the entire liner.

Relining a chimney involves the removal of the original tile flue liner and inserting a new one. A qualified chimney technician can use a specialized tool to remove the existing flue liner and replace it with a new, properly sized one.

The new chimney flue liner should be about a third of the size of the original. This will allow the chimney to draft properly and meet the International Residential Code requirements for flue size.

Stainless steel flue liners are often the most common type of liner, and they are designed to withstand exposure to a chimney fire for a long period of time. Unlike clay liners, metal liners are easier to replace when necessary.

A relining technician will determine the best relining method for your specific needs, but most often it will involve removing the old liner and inserting the new one. Then, any insulation that is needed will be added to keep the new liner warmer and reduce heat transfer to the surrounding masonry.

Relining your chimney can be costly, but it can help to prevent the need for replacement and make your chimney more effective. It can also help to increase the life of your chimney and reduce the risk of future problems. Regardless of the repair method used, it is important to get your chimney inspected regularly by a qualified chimney professional.

If your chimney has been leaking, you need to call in a professional. This is because water leaks from a chimney can lead to mold, rot, and other structural issues that can cost thousands of dollars in repairs.

When you are a homeowner, it is important to make sure that your home and its structures are in good condition. This includes making sure that your roof is in good shape, your gutters are clear and free of debris, and that your flashing around the chimney is in good condition.

The flashing is an area of roofing that closes the gap between your chimney and your roof shingles. It is made of aluminum or copper and should be in good condition to help protect your chimney from water damage.

A roofer should be able to repair the flashing and replace it with new material. They will also make sure that the flashing is secure and airtight against your chimney so that it can hold back moisture from seeping in.

It is common for people to try to seal cracks in their chimneys with caulk or tar, but this does not always work well. This is because caulking can easily wear away and allow water to get into your chimney.

Another common cause of a chimney leaking is cracked flue tiles or mortar joints. These can be difficult to repair. You may have to tear off the entire flue tile in order to do this, but it is worth it for the long-term health of your chimney.

In addition to allowing water to enter your chimney, these cracks can also make it more likely for pests to get inside. Rodents are known to travel along roofs and will not hesitate to take up residence in your chimney if they can find a way in.

If your chimney is leaking because of cracked masonry, you will need to contact a chimney services professional to inspect the masonry and fix the problem. The best time to do this is when the weather is dry.

You can also hire a chimney services professional to install a chimney cap that will prevent rainwater and other debris from entering the chimney. A chimney cap is an essential part of any home and can save you a lot of money in the long run.

A leaning chimney is a problem that many older homes suffer from. It may not seem like a major issue at first, but it can cause serious damage to your home and threaten the safety of you and your family.

A chimney is one of the heaviest elements in a home, and it can put a lot of stress on your foundation when it begins to lean. Fortunately, there are several ways to repair your leaning chimney and ensure its stability.

The most common method is to install foundation piers. These piers are driven under your chimney until it reaches a stable soil base. Once the piers are in place, they support the chimney and stabilize it permanently.

Another option is to install helical piers. These piers are made of steel and are driven under the chimney until it reaches a good soil base. The piers are then held in place with brackets.

Once the piers are in place, a hydraulic jack can be used to slowly raise the chimney back to its original position. This repair method is a permanent solution and prevents future problems from occurring.

In addition to putting the foundation at risk, a leaning chimney can also create a number of other issues that could potentially be dangerous. It can lead to a cracked liner which will let gases into your home, or it can cause water damage.

It can also allow unwanted insects into your home. Depending on the severity of your problem, a leaning chimney could even cause damage to your roof and other parts of your home.

If you suspect that your chimney is leaning, make sure you don’t try to fix it yourself. The chimney is a significant part of your home’s structure, and you need to call a professional to evaluate the problem as soon as possible.

Aside from the obvious dangers, a leaning chimney is also a visual nuisance and can be difficult to spot from the ground. Some homeowners attempt to correct the leaning by filling voids with foam or other sticky materials, which can only serve to make the situation worse.

The chimney is a major component of any home, and it can become a big eyesore or even cause damage if neglected. This is why it’s important to take care of a crumbling chimney before it becomes too much of a problem.

If you see crumbling bricks on the exterior of your chimney, it may indicate that the mortar holding them together is deteriorating and leaking. In some cases, this can lead to water damage and a whole host of other issues.

A masonry repair professional will examine the area and offer options for repairs. Some of these include tuckpointing the joints between the bricks, which will prevent the deterioration from continuing. Others may recommend waterproofing the bricks, which will make them more resistant to moisture.

Another common chimney repair method is to seal the flue liner. This helps prevent rust from developing and reduces the risk of chimney leaks, which can be a nuisance. The liner is also a crucial part of the chimney’s structure, so if it becomes damaged, it should be repaired immediately to protect the rest of the chimney.

You can also use clear painter’s caulk to repair damaged chimney brickwork. However, this type of repair is not permanent and will eventually break down due to sun exposure. A more permanent fix is to demo out soft mortar joints, remove cracked or spalling bricks, and repoint them using new mortar.

The mortar between the bricks of a chimney is essential to the structure’s integrity, and it will begin to deteriorate as soon as it becomes exposed to moisture. This can happen when water enters the crack between a brick and its mortar joint, freezes, expands, and then causes the entire structure to deteriorate.

Repeated freezing and thawing cycles can cause the mortar to deteriorate and damage the bricks. This can result in the formation of spalled and/or missing bricks that are unbalanced and can cause the chimney to tilt on one side or collapse altogether.